There’s a story of two elderly men who were childhood friends, but had not seen each other in many years. One day, they run into each other on the street, and are delighted to recognize one another. One of them lives in the area, so he invites the other into his home. They happily begin catching up, getting lost in their stories and jokes as the day goes on. The guest finally notices that it has become dark outside, so he asks his friend what time it is.

“I don’t have a watch,” his friend replies.

“So look at the clock, and tell me what time it is.”

“I don’t have a clock either,” his friend replies.

Puzzled, the first man asks his friend: “If you don’t have a watch, and you don’t have a clock, how do you tell the time?”

“I use my trumpet!” the second man proudly replies.

“A trumpet? How can you tell time with a trumpet?”

“I’ll show you.” He picks up his trumpet, opens the window, and blows a long, deafening blast. A few seconds later, a window opens below and his neighbor shouts: “Three o’clock in the morning and you’re playing your trumpet?!”

The man turns to his friend and proclaims, “It’s three o’clock in the morning.”

As we approach Elul, we must realize that the shofar is Hashem’s trumpet, begging us to wake up from our slumber. When we hear it, we must remind ourselves what time it is. It’s time to question, to think, to redirect. Often, though, life has a way of running on autopilot, controlled only by the flow of momentum. When things are going well, they flow forward, steadily picking up speed. When things fall apart, they continue downhill, refusing to ease up.

Making a healthful eating choice can serve as inspiration to wake up early the next morning and exercise. The feeling of making a great decision leads you to another great decision, and the cycle continues. The energy and confidence from this positive momentum leads to an increased surge of confidence, leading to another great decision, perhaps a push forward in your career, or a positive development in your relationships, or a focus on the next step of your spiritual growth. This is the beauty of momentum. This is also the psychological and practical root of the concept “mitzvah goreres mitzvah” (Avos 4:2) – one mitzvah leads to another. However, this same momentum can be the cause of our undoing, as well. “Aveirah goreres aveirah” – one misstep leads to another.

Maybe it starts with a small slip-up in our diet, when you promised yourself you would do better. Now, you feel weak and foolish, and begin muttering self-degrading jabs under your breath. Your confidence takes a major hit, and you begin to see yourself as a failure. The next morning, you hit snooze, making yourself feel even worse, even weaker, even more of a failure. Next, you sabotage your relationship, miss a meeting, or let your growth and spirituality slide. Of course, this makes you feel even worse, so you break your diet again, making you feel even worse, yet again. This is the deadly cycle of momentum. One thing leads to another, creating a cataclysmic landslide towards complete and utter breakdown.

While this picture is extreme, I’m sure we can all relate. Sometimes things seem to fall apart in our lives, and we struggle to pick up the pieces. When we start that downhill slide, how do we stop the momentum? How do we pick ourselves up? To understand this, let us develop an important theme connected to both Parshas R’ei and the month of Elul as a whole.

Free Will

Parshas R’ei begins with the principle of choice: Hashem presents us with the choice between blessing and curse, between good and bad. In a few parshiyos from now, the Torah states: “u’vacharta ba’chayim – you shall choose life” (D’varim 30:19). This is cited by most commentators as the source for the principle of free will, the power of choice.

The month of Elul is deeply tied to the theme of T’shuvah – usually translated as repentance. The Rambam (Hilchos T’shuvah, Chapter 5) includes the concept of free will within the laws of t’shuvah. This seems both strange and unnecessary. The necessity and nature of free will appears more philosophical than legal, so why does the Rambam include this in his work of halachic codes? To understand this, we must delve into the true nature of t’shuvah.

T’shuvah: Act of Return

While t’shuvah is often translated as repentance, its literal meaning is “return,” as in the Hebrew word “shuv.” The goal of t’shuvah is not only to free ourselves of punishment and responsibility for our past. T’shuvah is about self-transformation, returning to a higher, better version of ourselves. We don’t only wish to escape, we wish to ascend. It is on this premise that the Rambam describes the three-step process of t’shuvah.

The first step of t’shuvah is recognizing that there is a problem to fix, that a mistake has occurred. It is impossible to solve a problem without first admitting that the problem exists. It is all too easy to simply push forward in life, ignoring our inner and outer struggles. But that results in the downward cascade described above. Only by acknowledging the problem can we stop the downward momentum and actually solve it.

The second step of t’shuvah is to regret one’s mistake. Often, we know a problem exists, but we don’t feel ashamed, hurt, or even bothered by it. Without internal regret or hurt, we won’t be motivated enough to take the actionable steps required to make change. When we yearn for the truth, and allow ourselves to powerfully feel the inner contradiction between how we could be living and how we currently are living, we generate the emotional response necessary to genuinely regret our past mistakes.

Third, one must commit to an improved future, one in which this mistake will not be repeated. One must commit to strive towards a greater version of himself or herself, whereby if given the chance to repeat this mistake, one would not give in to temptation, but would overcome the challenge.

The Necessity of Free Will

In order for the process of t’shuvah to exist, there is one essential element: free will. The only way you can genuinely change, transform, and evolve is if you have the capacity to assert your inner will, to create a new reality within yourself. This requires a complete re-creation of self within your consciousness, a remolding of your inner world. While yesterday, you were the type of person who did one thing, today, a new decision is formed; a new reality is created within your inner world. This requires a complete assertion of willpower, an overcoming of self, a breakdown and reformation of inner drive and character. This means giving up who you are for who you want to be, sacrificing what you think you want for what you truly want. It means overcoming the emotional and overwhelming pull of current desire and generating a new “want” within your very core. This is why the Rambam places his seemingly philosophical discussion of the concept of free will amongst the halachos of t’shuvah; free will is the very root and foundation of hilchos t’shuvah. Without free will, one could never change; one could never become something else, someone new, someone better.

Strikingly, Rav Eliyahu Dessler explains that many people never experience a true expression of free will, because of its immense difficulty. This is why many people do not change. Change is hard, uncomfortable, and often requires sacrifice. One must believe so fully in his new future in order to give up his current lifestyle. However, when we push with all our might, expressing a full force of inner will, we get a taste of truth, an experience of destiny, and a glimpse of our true self.

Breaking Momentum

We can now return to our original question regarding how to stop the downwards momentum of failure and bad decisions. The answer is simple; it’s a single word: decide! Choice is the most powerful tool Hashem has granted us. The power of choice allows us to accomplish anything. When life begins to fall apart, and bad decisions start piling up, we must cut off the downward momentum before it grows out of control, before it destroys us. The key is making the decision, asserting your inner will, and focusing its full force towards cutting off the momentum. If you can stop the momentum of bad decisions, of a lifestyle that is draining the life out of you, you can stop it from spreading, and the virus will wither and die. With nowhere to spread, negativity is like a flame without oxygen – it simmers out and disappears. It all starts with a single decision to turn the tide, to begin building positive momentum, to start climbing uphill, to start heading towards your ultimate destination. If you can take that first step and push towards your greatness, your life will suddenly begin riding that new wave. This is the power of choice; this is the power of momentum.

The Root of T’shuvah

Choice is the root of t’shuvah. T’shuvah is about reengineering our will, recreating our desire, rewiring our wants. It’s about the decision to be better, to be great, to become our best and truest self. As the Ramchal explains in M’silas Y’sharim, if you can change what you want (akiras ha’ratzon), you can change who you are. When you make a new decision, you can create a new reality for yourself. When the shofar blows this year, let us truly awaken. In some sense, we all need a shofar for the shofar; we need a wakeup call to listen to this year’s wakeup call. Many are numb to the wordless blast, deaf to its existential calling. Some have given up on change, while others are too busy with life to stop and truly consider the possibility of more, of a higher life. This year, let us embrace the shofar’s call and tap into our higher purpose. May we all be inspired to fully utilize this Elul, to embark on a journey of genuine t’shuvah, and continue the process of becoming our ultimate selves.

Shmuel Reichman is an inspirational speaker, writer, and coach who has lectured internationally at shuls, conferences, and Jewish communities on topics of Jewish Thought and Jewish Medical Ethics. He is the founder and CEO of Self-Mastery Academy (, the transformative online course that is revolutionizing how we engage in self-development. You can find more inspirational lectures, videos, and articles from Shmuel on his website: